Mosin Nagant M91 Tula 1935 91/30 Mosin Nagant All Matching Original M91/30
The Russian Army commissioned the creation of a new weapon that they called the “3-line rifle, Model 1891.” This rifle was a hybrid of the Mosin and Nagant designs. On Model 1891s, the many trades and compromises that took place between the two designs are evident. For instance, in the first version of Mosin’s design, the spring was not linked to the base plate, therefore it was possible that it would become detached while cleaning.
As a result, the more functional and convenient design proposed by Nagant, in which the magazine spring is linked to the base plate, was adopted. The “interrupter” was another component that was changed between the designs of the Mosin and the Nagant.
The first design of the Nagant did not include an interrupter, which prevented two cartridges from being loaded simultaneously and resulted in a high rate of feed failures. As a result, the Mosin interrupter and a revised version of the feed mechanism design were incorporated into the Model 1891. Later on, when the Model 1891 was updated to become the M1891/30, the interrupter was altered even more significantly because it was still deemed to be an unstable component of the rifle.
From the time it was first developed until the end of World War II, when it was regular issue for Russian forces to employ in their fight against the Nazi invasion, the Mosin Nagant saw extensive use. After World War II, the Mosin-Nagant was replaced by the SKS, and later by the AK-47; however, it remained in service in the Eastern bloc for a considerable amount of time after that.
Although the majority of Mosin Nagant in Western countries were surplus exports from Finland when the Finnish army modernized its weapons in the 1960s, the Mosin Nagant can still be found on the frontlines of countries that received aid from the Soviet Union throughout the 20th century. These countries include Afghanistan, Iraq, and Syria.
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The first draft and accompanying testing
At the deadly Siege of Pleven in the Russo-Ottoman War of 1877–1878, Russian troops armed largely with Berdan single-shot rifles sustained enormous casualties at the hands of Turkish troops equipped with Winchester repeating rifles. This was especially true during the brutal Siege of Pleven. This made it clear to the Russian commanders that the general infantry weapon of the army needed to be brought up to date.
The General Armament Unit of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Empire (GAU) was responsible for the acquisition and testing of a variety of weaponry. In 1889, the Lebel M1886 was received from France through semi-official means. It came with a replica of the cartridge and the bullet, but it was missing the primer and the smokeless powder when it was delivered to the customer. These issues were resolved thanks to the efforts of Russian researchers and technologists (the smokeless powder, for instance, was produced by Dmitri Mendeleev himself).
In the year 1889, three different designs of rifles were put forward for consideration. One of these designs was a “3-line” caliber rifle, which had a diameter of 7.62 millimeters and a caliber of.30. Another design was a “3.5-line” design, which had a diameter of 9 millimeters and a caliber of.35. The third design was a “3-line” design, which had a caliber of.35.
When the trials were finally over in 1891, the evaluators had conflicting opinions about the results. The primary drawbacks of the Mosin rifle were its more intricate mechanism as well as its lengthy and laborious process of disassembly (which required specialized tools because it was necessary to loosen two different types of bolts). The “artisan pre-production” method that Nagant used to make his 300 rifles was the primary cause of the inferior quality of manufacture and materials that were used in those guns.
The commission initially approved Mosin’s weapon by a vote of 14 to 10, but then changed their minds. At this point, it was decided to rename the existing commission and call it the Commission for creation of the small-bore rifle (Komissia dla vyrabotki obrazza malokalibernogo ruja).
Additionally, it was decided to write down the standards that must be met for such a weapon in its final form. The innovators complied with the request and handed them their finished creations. The head of the commission, General Chagin, gave the order for subsequent tests to be carried out under the supervision of the commission. As a result of these tests, the commission decided to put the bolt-action of Mosin’s design into production and give it the name 3-line rifle M1891 (trehlinejnaa vintovka obrazza 1891 goda).